Peter Blair reading Wilfred Owen’s Futility

WWI postcard by Edith Cavell, artist signed T. Corbella.

WWI postcard by Edith Cavell, artist signed T. Corbella.

When I was in college I spent much of my free time playing with ways that poetry was beginning to intersect with the new digital world. Back in 1998 I recorded my good friend and thespian Peter Blair reading Wilfred Owen’s heart-rending poem, Futility. Here’s that reading:

by Wilfred Owen

Move him into the sun —
Gently its touch awoke him once,
At home, whispering of fields unsown.
Always it woke him, even in France,
Until this morning and this snow.
If anything might rouse him now
The kind old sun will know.

Think how it wakes the seeds —
Woke, once, the clays of a cold star.
Are limbs so dear-achieved, are sides
Full-nerved, — still warm, — too hard to stir?
Was it for this the clay grew tall?
— O what made fatuous sunbeams toil
To break earth's sleep at all?

Born on March 18, 1893, Wilfred Owen became one of the few outstanding poets who wrote about World War I. He joined the British Artist’s Rifle O.T.C. in 1915, and served with their 2nd Battalion from 1916-1917. Though he returned home in 1917 because of invalidity, he went back to the Western Front in 1918 where he was killed in battle on November 14.

Donald Clark on why we shouldn’t worry about teacher re-use of OER

Donald Clark’s recent post listing significant obstacles or setbacks to the OER movement is pretty brilliant. One key point he makes that I hadn’t thought of is an “obsession with reusability”. He writes, “the obsession with the reuse of content by teachers, rather than straight use by learners, has led to an inward-looking attitude. Teaching is a means to an end and the most valuable OER resources are those used directly by learners.”

Alan Levine notes the rarity of actual instances of reuse/remix. Part of the problem goes beyond awareness, past discoverability, and right to the actual conspicuousness of reusuable learning activities for everyday teachers. (I’ve talked about this as a key value of Canvas Commons).

But I think Clark’s point is especially brilliant, and leads back to his implied observation that the most successful OER projects were designed not to foster teacher re-use, but to directly engage learners (Wikipedia, Khan Academy, etc). This suggests that if OER efforts focus on student re-use, teacher re-use will follow.

“Leaky sensory gating” may support — and exacerbate — creativity

What is creativity? Often it’s marked by divergent thinking and the ability to make novel connections between different ideas or concepts. Think high-productivity conceptual blending.

No wonder, then, that new research from Northwestern University suggests that a failure to “filer out ‘irrelevant’ sensory information” is related to creativity. This study adds to previous research that suggests distractibility and creativity are somehow intertwined.

The Northwestern researchers write, “‘Leaky’ sensory gating … may help people integrate ideas that are outside of the focus of attention, leading to creativity in the real world…” They theorize that this is because “creative people with “leaky” sensory gating may have a propensity to deploy attention over a wider focus or a larger range of stimuli.”

It’s a two-edged sword, though. Creative people often lament their own distractibility and the nuisance that activity outside of their mind causes. My own son, who spends most of his leisure time designing games in Scratch or Unity, is continually harassed by the noises that surround him.

2U’s 2015 Impact Report defends online education through content marketing

2U has released a 2015 “impact report” that I think is worth mentioning for its substance, structure, and style.

2U’s message: You or someone you know thinks online ed is lame, but actually it’s not. Thanks to 2U.

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I’ll admit it makes me sad that, despite continuing evidence of no significant difference, we still have to justify/defend online learning in the year 2015. But they’re right. We do. For example, the 2014 Babson Survey report Grade Level states, “academic leaders rating online learning outcomes as ‘Inferior’ or ‘Somewhat Inferior’ remained steady [in 2014] at 25.9%.”

One of the things you’ll notice as you (double)scroll to navigate through the report is it is both elegant and painless to read. Which brings me to think about the structure and the style of this piece:

For those of you interested in sales or marketing tactics, 2U’s report is a good example of commercial teaching — the report leads from the problem (persistent negative perception of online education) to their unique solution (strongly partnered online degree programs).

My colleague Sean Morris and I are both deeply invested in figuring out how to make important education research both appealing and impactful. We talked in depth about the language used in this 2U piece, and how even though this is labeled an “impact report”, it certainly feels much lighter weight. We had to ask ourselves, is this in actuality a research report or is it mere marketing narrative? It’s both. In my previous career I would have been a prime target for this particular piece, yet I didn’t feel like the report was BS’ing me or hiding truth behind fluffy language. Perhaps that’s because I know enough of the underlying tension (e.g. the perception vs reality challenge that online learning faces) that I was able to accept the claims without too much scrutiny of sources.

If you work in education, what examples have you seen of simple but substantial (and, dare I say, influential) content marketing that worked for you?

Cathy Davidson on designing student-centered learning

I was very glad to read Cathy Davidson’s description of a student-centered approach to course design that itself ends up articulating the core, underlying goal of student-centered learning: Empower every learner to be autonomous, self-directed, and successful.

It’s because of this goal that student-centered learning is often confounded with “active learning”; achieving this goal in a real, transferable way requires active learning.

Coincidentally, the research team I work on has been focusing on this distinctive idea over the past two months as we prepare for InstructureCon 2015 . We’ve scoured the academic literature on “student-centered learning” and its various incarnations, and are coming to a sense of how this important idea is connected with associated theories, applications, and practices. It’s becoming clear that, if we as educators believe in the goals and principles of student-centered learning, we must deliberately provide scaffolding for our students; we can’t assume the mindsets, skills, and habits of self-directedness will emerge ex nilho.

Distinguishing online courses from MOOCs still a problem for the media

You’d think I’d be used to it by now. Or maybe it’s still surprising because I presume that popular press would have figured it out by now.

Like many other media outlets, The Economist once again makes the mistake of equating and confusing MOOCs with online courses. If the distinction between MOOCs and online courses is confusing to you, it may help to think of online education as a big circle, online courses as a smaller, interior circle, and MOOCs as an even smaller subset within that:

MOOCs are just a small subset of online courses, which largely represent institutionally-designed online education. Online learning includes all the informal learning that happens everyday. Of course, this isn’t to any scale; in actuality, the online learning circle should fill this Starbucks.


There are good examples of reporting on online education in the popular press — Forbes’s 2014 article by Tom Lindsay, for example, but they are rare. Too many stories in the mainstream media treat online education as if it arrived just a few years ago. Of course, K-20 institutions have been offering fully online courses and programs since the birth of the internet, and largely with great success. As fascinating as MOOCs are, they’re not really what we talk about when we talk about online education.

New on Keep Learning: Technology-Enhanced Teaching in Higher Ed and Corporate

Check out my brief post over at Keep Learning that connects some of my experiences as an instructional designer in higher education who occasionally looked over the fence to the corporate e-learning field:

Bridging the Gap: Technology-enhanced Teaching in Higher Ed and Corporate. (As a bit of history, the eye-opening conference that I reference in the post is e-Learning DevCon. I commented on the 2009 event here.)

Also, I link to a report on LMS comparisons authored by Software Advice that quotes me describing the need for simplicity. Software Advice had conducted a survey of more than 150 HR professionals who use learning management systems. They aimed to discover how their organizations are using these systems for training, what benefits and challenges they’ve experienced and what their plans are for 2015. The results should help LMS buyers as they seek technology solutions in an era when human resources and professional development initiatives sees employee engagement as more important than compliance training.

Digital Tools for Reading in a Connected Age, Part 1

The continuing information explosion creates both opportunities and problems for readers. In order to adapt, we need better habits and new tools combined in novel ways.


The key functions that I’ve found necessary for digital reading workflows include…

  1. Organize current and future reading material
  2. Isolate reading material from the distraction-rich web for improved readability and deeper reading
  3. Annotation and note-taking to reinforce understanding
  4. Reminders to read or review saved items

No single tool does all three of these things for all document types, and so I’ve been playing with a number of different tools in combination. Here’s a look at the first two functions first broadly, and then in terms of specific tools I’ve found to be useful.

1. Organize current and future digital reading material

Let’s presume we have some kind of filtering mechanism for new information. Let’s presume that filtering identifies some reading material as “read now” vs “read later”. An item may be “read now” if it’s short, or if the immediate task at hand requires discovery of new information. An item may be “read later” if it’s long, or if reading the article requires deeper thinking, or if the reading must be deliberately woven into other work.

In any case, we likely want to save the reading material for later reference. We may want to organize the reading material for faster finding, or matching with themes or categories.

Diigo vs Pocket vs Readability for Web Pages

Diigo has been a favorite tool for saving, tagging, and organizing reading material ever since they went live groups and web page annotation capabilities.

Diigo is a classic social bookmarking tool with a 2-click process to save a document to read later. It seems a small thing, but Diigo automatically closes the current tab when you choose “Read Later”. This helps me keep my browser tidy while I’m exploring a topic.

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Diigo’s browser plugin for Chrome.

And while Diigo addresses function #1 exceedingly well, it does nothing to address function #2, so I’ve been exploring other options, particularly Readability and Pocket

Readability and Pocket are very similar in terms of their saving capabilities. Both have a simple browser add-on that lets you save documents for later (1 click for Pocket; 2 clicks for Readability).  But there are important differences.

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Readability and Pocket’s browser plugins for Chrome.

Readability is simpler. Its “Read Now” capability assumes most web browsing will read to immediate reading, and so it converts web pages into a consistent, simple text format with font sizing and line length that is advantageous to reading.

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Does anyone enjoy reading the unclipped lines in Wikipedia? Readability FTW.

To do the same thing in Pocket requires at least one additional click, added load time, and some navigational confusion as you are taken to your Pocket index in a separate tab.

However, Pocket is more versatile. Pocket has more features and social capabilities for sharing articles, and lets you tag items. What is really enticing about pocket is it lets you save videos and images just as you save articles, including PDFs.

Unfortunately, Diigo is the only one of these three that has annotation capabilities, and this is an important element for me when I am reading online (more on that later).

Mendeley for Academic Articles

Not all digital reading comes in HTML format. When I discover an academic article online, most likely it is a PDF *. While I could just bookmark these or use Diigo or Pocket or whatever and then read them in the browser, this is not always fit for the task. Most academic articles require slower, deliberate poring over. Organizing academic articles benefits from richer metadata, and that metadata is typically re-used for bibliographies and references. That’s why I use Mendeley for academic articles.

While Mendeley does have a desktop plugin that’s good for creating new entries in your Mendeley db, it does not auto-save web pages or PDFs for offline reading. Further, when I find a PDF I often want to secure it, in case it’s not available when next I search.

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Mendeley’s rather large browser plugin for Chrome.

So I start by saving the PDF into a Google Drive folder that is watched by the Mendeley app. I also have Mendeley automatically rename and organize those PDFs into a different folder on Google Drive. Using a cloud file manager for the watched folder means I can easily move from one computer to another, access files from project management tools like RedBooth, and share files easily with collaborators.

Mendeley also has a decent groups functionality which allows for sharing of articles, with notes and annotations. I use this with my team at work. Mendeley’s document management capabilities come with metadata lookup from their database. That alone is enough to make it my article manager of choice.

2. Tools to Isolate Reading Material from the Distraction-Rich Web

If you think you lose more than you gain by disconnecting your reading from the web, don’t bother arguing here. While I see benefits to both methods, for my part, reading on the connected web is simply too distracting. Even if I weren’t to click on any links, side and top bars distract my attention, and you never know when a web page is going to pop-up a survey or something. Also, you’re dependent on an internet connection.

So I isolate items — both web pages and PDFs — for offline reading using cloud apps that allow me to access those items on my phone, on my tablet, or on any computer.

For the experience of reading PDFs offline, I stick with Mendeley. Mendeley’s desktop app is easy to navigate, and the built in annotation tools give me everything I need without much overhead. The Mendeley mobile app is solid, and recent versions have introduced annotation capabilities that do sync up with the desktop version (perhaps to keep abreast of tools that leverage Zotero or Mendeley’s API, like Papership). The Mendeley mobile app does make you sync everything or nothing (actually, one article at a time, on demand), but that’s probably a good dilemma to have with the amount of PDFs that I have saved.

Mendeley’s iPad app, adding a note to a highlighted document

For web pages, all three of tools reviewed here (Diigo, Readability, and Pocket) have mobile apps for offline reading. Unfortunately, the Diigo Browser iPad app is pretty lousy for offline reading, especially compared to the simply beautiful Readability and Pocket apps.

Pocket’s iPad app displays offline articles as preview tiles.

Because I just don’t have a preference for one or the other, I’m sticking with Readability for now.

Readability’s iPad app syncs when opened for offline reading.

In part that’s because Pocket has more options that I don’t know what to do with. I may switch to Pocket if videos and images become a greater part of my reading and curation habits, or if new possibilities using Pocket’s tagging capabilities + IFTTT arise.

More on IFTTT as part of the reading process in the next post as I look at how to develop habits of reading that reinforce understanding of new information.

* A couple pro-tips for finding PDF versions without a college library login:

1. After searching in Google Scholar, click “All X versions” — you’ll often find at least one PDF.

2. In Google generally use the file type operator, filetype:pdf along with the title of the article.

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Why I Only Read Half the Things I’d Like To (and Remember Less than Half of Those I Do)

The present information explosion is both a blessing and a curse. On the one hand, we can find more resources on more topics in less time, with less effort, and at lower costs.  On the other hand, the unending streams of information can be overwhelming. We call this cognitive overload, and its ill-effects may include decision paralysis, continual partial attention, and other task-switching related costs.


Social Media Information Overload by Mark Smiciklas CC By-NC

Knowledge is power, but information is not.
David Lewis, “Dying for Information?” (1986)

I think about this problem especially in context of reading. It’s really no surprise that there appear to be increased cognitive load and associated visual distraction when reading on the web. Even setting the challenges of reading hypertext aside, we’ve known for a while that the act of reading digital is different from reading print, and that reading digital effects our outcomes (e.g. spatial-related understanding, speed, comprehension). This may be especially apt when the goal of reading is learning.

Personally, I want to read everything I can. If I sit next to a discarded newspaper on the train, I read it. If a trusted colleague shares a link on Twitter, I read it. If a blog post hyperlinks to an external site, I read it. If a web search yields five good results, I read each.

Or, at least, I intend to read those things. Often I save the document to “read later”, in some for or another: I can open the web page in a new tab; I can bookmark an article using Diigo; I can store a PDF in my Mendeley watched folder; I can save a web page for later using Pocket; I can star a tweet; I can relegate an RSS feed to Feedly. Etc.

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Unfortunately, too often those articles are abandoned. Too often I quickly skim an article to check it off my list and don’t really comprehend it. Even when I do read an article thoroughly and take notes in a fashion that reinforces my new knowledge, those notes aren’t always readily available, let alone organize, to review at a later point.

The fog of information can drive out knowledge.
Daniel Boorstin, “Helping the Library of Congress Fulfill Its Mission” (1983)

To combat these problems I’m squarely in the camp of Howard Rheingold and others, who seek tools and practices that help us thrive in information-rich environments. To date, I’m still seeking to solve the complicated problems of trans-media reading with different combinations of tools, but I’ve not found the perfect solution yet. In upcoming posts I’ll share some of the more promising pairings that I’ve hit upon.